08 Dec september 1, 1939 date
On 8 and 13 September 1939, the German military district in the area of Posen, commanded by general Alfred von Vollard-Bockelberg [de], and West Prussia, commanded by general Walter Heitz, were established in conquered Greater Poland and Pomerelia, respectively.  Those movements were quickly disciplined by the NKVD. The tank force consisted of two armored brigades, four independent tank battalions and some 30 companies of TKS tankettes attached to infantry divisions and cavalry brigades. The Polish Air Force, despite being significantly outnumbered and with its fighters outmatched by more advanced German fighters, remained active until the second week of the campaign, inflicting significant damage on the Luftwaffe. That is why I have prepared, for the moment only in the East, my 'Death's Head' formations with orders to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish descent or language. As a result, Russia took up the same positions as an enemy of Poland that it might have taken as a very dubious and suspected friend.  Meanwhile, the Germans were tightening their encirclement of the Polish forces west of the Vistula (in the Łódź area and, still farther west, around Poznań) and penetrating deeply into eastern Poland. On the same day, Marshal of Poland Edward Rydz-Śmigły announced the mobilization of Polish troops. Andreas Toppe, Militär und Kriegsvölkerrecht: Rechtsnorm, Fachdiskurs und Kriegspraxis in Deutschland 1899–1940, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2008, p. 398, Черчилль У. Вторая мировая война. However, on 25 August, the Polish-British Common Defence Pact was signed as an annex to the Franco-Polish alliance (1921). The Slovak invasion of Poland occurred during Germany's invasion of Poland in September 1939. The invasion of Poland (September campaign, Polish: Kampania wrześniowa; 1939 defensive war, Polish: Wojna obronna 1939 roku; Poland campaign, German: Überfall auf Polen) marked the beginning of World War II. In spite of this, Polish cavalry brigades were used as mobile mounted infantry and had some successes against both German infantry and cavalry.  The 7TP was significantly better armed than its most common opponents, the German Panzer I and II, but only 140 tanks were produced between 1935 and the outbreak of the war.  Poland also never officially surrendered to the Germans. Günther von Kluge led 20 divisions that entered the Polish Corridor and met a second force heading to Warsaw from East Prussia. , The invasion was referred to by Germany as the 1939 Defensive War (Verteidigungskrieg) since Hitler proclaimed that Poland had attacked Germany and that "Germans in Poland are persecuted with a bloody terror and are driven from their homes. United States 1939 – Calendar with American holidays. September 1, 2017 Written by Timothy Boyce In the pre-dawn hours of September 1, 1939, Hitler’s armies, using a trumped-up pretext, invaded Poland, signaling the start of World War II in Europe. September 1, 1939, poem by W.H. Hundreds of thousands of refugees, both Jewish and non-Jewish, fled the German advance hoping the Polish army could halt the German advance. Polish to German forces in the September Campaign: 1,000,000 soldiers, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 435 aircraft (Poland) to 1,800,000 soldiers, 10,000 guns, 2,800 tanks, 3,000 aircraft (Germany). The invasion of Poland (September campaign, Polish: Kampania wrześniowa; 1939 defensive war, Polish: Wojna obronna 1939 roku; Poland campaign, German: Überfall auf Polen) marked the beginning of World War II.  It held that these divisions should act in coordination with other elements of the military, punching holes in the enemy line and isolating selected units, which would be encircled and destroyed. On 15 September 1939, Molotov and Shigenori Tōgō completed their agreement that ended the conflict, and the Nomonhan ceasefire went into effect on 16 September 1939. At 04:45, the old German pre-dreadnought battleship Schleswig-Holstein opened fire on the Polish military transit depot at Westerplatte, in the Free City of Danzig, on the Baltic Sea.  Lacking training for such a disaster, the civilian population panicked and retreated east, spreading chaos, lowering the troops' morale and making road transportation for Polish troops very difficult. Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. 1 September Search ON THIS DAY by date Front Page ... Britain and France were forced to declare war after Germany ignored their separate ultimatums, delivered on 3 September 1939, demanding the withdrawal of German troops from Poland. The most common range differences and their brackets are: German personnel 1,490,900 (official figure of the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs)—or 1,800,000. That led to some Polish troops being encircled or taking a stand against overwhelming odds when they thought they were actually counterattacking or would soon receive reinforcements from other victorious areas. The German 19th Panzer Corps—commanded by General Heinz Guderian—had occupied the city, which lay within the Soviet sphere of interest. Foreign Secretary Edward Wood said they were only obligated to declare war on Germany due to the first clause of the Anglo-Polish Agreement in 1939.. The Soviets lost approximately 150 tanks in combat of which 43 as irrecoverable losses, while hundreds more suffered technical failures. In the aftermath of the invasion, a collective of underground resistance organizations formed the Polish Underground State within the territory of the former Polish state. Even before printing the poem for the first time, Auden deleted two stanzas from the latter section, one of them proclaiming his faith in an inevitable "education of man" away from war and division. It was the first tank in the world to be equipped with a diesel engine and 360° Gundlach periscope. What would be the harm if as a result of the rout of Poland we were to extend the socialist system onto new territories and populations?. There is therefore no question of sparing Poland, and the decision remains to attack Poland at the first opportunity.  At Brest-Litovsk, Soviet and German commanders held a joint victory parade before German forces withdrew westward behind a new demarcation line. That made Polish defeats during the German invasion come as a shock to the civilian population.  That, however, did not prevent some clashes and small battles, such as the Battle of Grodno, as soldiers and locals attempted to defend the city. Poland participated with Germany in the partition of Czechoslovakia that followed the Munich Agreement, although they were not part of the agreement. Gawrecká "Československé Slezsko.  The Polish initial strength of 400 was reduced to 54 by 14 September and air opposition virtually ceased, with the main Polish air bases destroyed during the first 48 hours of the war.. Later that day, the Germans attacked on Poland's western, southern and northern borders, and German aircraft began raids on Polish cities. There are 121 days remaining until the end of this year. P-11c (+43 reserve), 30 P-7 (+85 reserve), 118 P-23 Karaś light bombers, 36 P-37 Łoś bombers (armed in line, additionally a few of the total number produced were used in combat), 84 reconnaissance RXIII Lublin, RWD14 Czapla (+115 reserve), Other treaties violated by the Soviet Union were the 1919. ", The population of the Free City of Danzig was strongly in favour of annexation by Germany, as were many of the ethnic German inhabitants of the Polish territory that separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the rest of the Reich.  The Polish Corridor constituted land long disputed by Poland and Germany, and was inhabited by a Polish majority.  The forward positioning of Polish forces vastly increased the difficulty of carrying out strategic maneuvres, compounded by inadequate mobility, as Polish units often lacked the ability to retreat from their defensive positions, as they were being overrun by more-mobile German mechanized formations. Jung's Psychology and Religion (1938). On 26 August, Hitler tried to dissuade the British and the French from interfering in the upcoming conflict, even pledging that the Wehrmacht forces would be made available to Britain's empire in the future. Commander Kazimierz Mastalerz ordered an attack, forcing the 20th infantry to withdraw and disperse. [Note 7] Furthermore, the Polish Army was preparing the Romanian Bridgehead, which would have prolonged Polish defence, but the plan was invalidated by the Soviet invasion of Poland on 17 September 1939.  The Polish Air Force's decisions to strengthen its resources came too late, mostly due to budget limitations. The above date is September 1, 1939 written in Roman numerals. His photographs and film Siege are stored in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.. As far as I know, General Hamelin estimates its strength at least 20 divisions, but there may well be 25 or even more. Germany attacked from three directions on land. That stemmed from conservatism on the part of the German High Command, which mainly restricted the role of armour and mechanized forces to supporting the conventional infantry divisions. It would allow the Germans to advance in between two Polish Army groups in the line between Berlin and Warsaw-Lodz, and Armia Prusy would then move in and repulse the German spearhead, trapping it. Latecomers sustained significant casualties when public transport became targets of the Luftwaffe. The Polish Air Force consisted of a 'Bomber Brigade', 'Pursuit Brigade' and aircraft assigned to the various ground armies. We went through hundreds of years. Further successes cannot be achieved without bloodshed. Zahradnik "Korzenie Zaolzia. Rather than simply asking , The largest battle during this campaign, the Battle of Bzura, took place near the Bzura River, west of Warsaw, and lasted from 9 to 19 September.